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SOME THOUGHTS CONCERNING THE POTTERY PYROTECHNOLOGY IN NEOLITHIC AND CHALCOLITHIC

Măţău, Florica ed. Tencariu, Felix Adrian bayonne dating. Their Southern Parallels and Chronological Importance Angaben zu den prähistorischen Feiern und Götter namen sowien dem Schmuck der Zeremonienbekleidung aus Pannonien Teodor, Iaşi Tatjana L.

In some cases, the ceramic quantity in reference to the inhabited area and the maximum possible amount of people that used it greatly exceeds the average mean of vessels necessary to the daily use the case of Cucuteni culture represents the best example.

Considering the abundance of ceramic materials, the problem of the production technology holds a special interest; unfortunately, the Romanian archaeological literature and not only the Romanian oneprovides descriptions often 38 de ani unic of dating cafe magdeburg types, shapes and decoration, but it pays little attention to aspects concerning the technology of pottery production.

Technological aspects imply the sources and methodology of obtaining raw material clay, temper, pigments, and fuelthe paste composition, the methods of manufacturing the vessels, the techniques and technology of firing. Felix-Adrian Tencariu experience in handling the fire as well as arranging and manipulating some sort of firing installations. Firing pottery installations in prehistory presents, in our opinion, a special position, being, besides the abundant quantity of pottery unearthed from archaeological excavations, one of bayonne dating few traces on the pottery craftsmanship of the era.

The installations types used, their dimension and their number offers the possibility of evaluating the technological level of a certain community or culture; also it can provide precious data about the ceramic production in reference to a certain community occupations, and not in the least, about the number and socio-economical status of the pottery producers.

The following analysis aims to present, as a synthetic typology, all the information regarding the pottery firing installations in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic ages on the Romanian territory; this kind of research was attempted before in the Romanian archaeological literature, at a certain stage bayonne dating the research COMŞA bayonne dating COMŞA ; ELLIS By starting from the archaeological discoveries, corroborated with some ethnographical data and analogies along with experimental reconstructions, we will propose bayonne dating typological sketch of pottery-firing installations used in bygone periods in the Romanian space.

Open firing. Firing in open spaces could have been practiced in spaces with no prior arrangement, on flat ground or in slightly hollow portions in the ground, or on special disposed exterior structures, like hearths, or, less likely, from within the houses.

The protection of the load from the surrounding atmosphere was far more important than the arrangement or the delimitation of the basis on which the vessels were placed.

Depending bayonne dating this feature, we distinguish two subtypes of open firings: A1. Open firing without protection fig.

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Open firing with isolation fig. Firing pits. A series of pits, of different shapes and dimensions, which, due to the strong burning of the walls, having been considered as favorable for firing pottery.

In terms of the functioning system, the pit differs from the bayonne dating firings through the complete isolation of the charge from the exterior atmospheric conditions.

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Generally speaking, the efficiency of this type of installation is the result of the small dimensions of the opening towards the hearth — the heat loss bayonne dating lesser than in the case of the open firing or of a pit with straight walls. In almost all the cases, the pits for firing pottery are round or ellipsoidal in shape, with flat bottom fig.

Type C. Surface one-chambered kiln. Due to the construction system clay that was applied on a wattle network and shape, most of the times with a semispherical calotte, this type of kiln is easily confounded with the wasting kilns, present inside the houses. Discovery of such groups of bigger or smaller kilns, their position in relation to the working places, or some construction particularities triggered their inclusion in the firing pottery installations category.

Depending on the number of openings and the position of the combustible matter towards the vessels we distinguish a few subtypes: C1. The simple kiln, without lateral opening for fueling the fire.

This type is attested, for the moment, only at Ariuşd, in the aspect bearing the same name of Cucuteni culture. It consisted of a construction with an approximately semispherical shape, with a buried hearth and presented a single opening, at the superior part, Bayonne dating Thoughts Concerning the Pottery Pyrotechnology through which the vessels and the combustible matter were being introduced LÁSZLÓfig.

One-chambered kiln, with lateral opening bayonne dating fueling the fire. This type is attested in the settlement from Zorlenţu Mare fig. One-chambered kiln, with lateral extended opening in shape of a tunnel fig. It is the kiln in shape of bayonne dating pear, and offers the option of partially separate the vessels from the fuel, by igniting and maintaining the fire in the prolonged mouth of the kiln.

The superior opening enables the draught and it could be partially or totally covered, depending bayonne dating the type of firing preferred by the potter. Kilns in shape of pear have been discovered for middle Neolithic at Tărtăria fig. Type D. Buried kiln with lateral fueling tunnel and access hole.

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The initial bayonne dating becomes a chamber for firing the vessels and the communicating tunnel between the two holes becomes a fueling chamber. Bayonne dating on the number of chambers for firing the vessels, we distinguish two subtypes: D1. Buried one-chambered kiln, attested in early and middle Neolithic, at Cârcea — Starčevo — Criş culture and Dudeşti — Vinča culture fig.

Kiln with two chambers placed vertically, separated by a perforated grid made from clay. It is the most complex firing pottery installation, because of the construction technique and functioning system. It consists of: a combustion chamber, generally in a hollow shape; in the middle of the hole a pillar is saved when digging the earth; a perforated staturile câștigurilor made from clay, usually built from identical, joined elements clay cones ; a chamber for burning the vessels, built in shape of a vault over the combustion room, with an opening in the superior part, through which the vessels were deposited and for allowing the draught fig.

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The access to the combustion chamber can be direct, through the burning room, or it can be made through the burning tunnel. The simplest installation for pottery firing was being made in open air, unprotected; a technological advance was represented by the version with a kind of isolation.

Bayonne dating firing evolved from the open firing, probably because of the same reason — to provide an adequate isolation of the firing. The simple kiln C1 appeared as a built replica of a pit, presenting similarities with the firing in open space isolated with a layer of clay or other material; the kilns bayonne dating simple lateral opening C2 and those with elongated lateral opening C3 evolved from C1, due to a need to obtain a supplementary fueling in order to acquire and maintain higher temperatures and partially avoid the Some Thoughts Concerning the Pottery Pyrotechnology contact between the vessels and fuel C3.

The buried kiln with lateral combustion tunnel type Devolved, for the same reasons, from the simple pit type B. As we mentioned above, this sketch is only a theoretical construct; it is also very likely that there is no connection between bayonne dating types we have catalogued, and maybe, some of them or allwere independently tested, as a result of an effort of innovative imagination and technical skills of potters from different regions and periods of time.

Analyzing the placement and repartition of discoveries of firing installations we can draw just a few conclusions about the origins or preference of a certain community for a type or another. In the context marked by insufficient and unequal data, it is difficult to state if these installations from Romanian Neolithic and Chalcolithic are local inventions or just local adaptations of a technology transmitted through the multitude of southern population waves from Middle East.

Despite these setbacks, we can observe a relative preference, in Neolithic, for the buried installation — holes and buried kilns with a chamber and a fueling tunnel, and a prevalence of built installation — one chamber or two chambers kilns built on bayonne dating surface, at least in Chalcolithic fig.

Kang joon se datorează singur can easily observe that the simplest installation for firing pottery, the pit, is also the most widely spread, in space and territory, on Romanian Neo-Chalcolithic space.

The pits from the early Neolithic Cârcea, Ceptura — Starčevo — Criş culturealthrough the middle Chalcolithic Poieneşti — Cucuteni culturewere also discovered for the middle Neolithic and early Chalcolithic — there is a simple explanation for it — the pit was an installation easy to made and use, and additionally it provided a certain kind of protection of the load from the atmospheric conditions and a relative control on bayonne bayonne dating firing atmosphere especially bayonne dating the reduction firing.

These types of installations offered the possibility to obtain higher temperatures and, more importantly, a better control of the firing atmosphere.

This type might have been the best technological solution for firing the fine, gracefully painted Starčevo pottery; that is why is documented at Ariuşd and Dumeşti the surface versionand also in Cucuteni culture, famous for the quality of its painted pottery.

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Due to the scarceness of discoveries, it is hard to trace the evolution and the diffusion, in time and space of this installation. A special interest is posed dating online paris by the type of kilns with two vertically chambers, with a pillar or separation wall placed in the burning room for sustaining the clay perforated grid.

We are not excluding this theory, but in the same time, it must be noted that this type of kiln was also used on a larger scale from the second half of bayonne dating seventh millennium BC in the Middle East HANSEN STREILY; this area, where Neolithic culture originated and many technological inventions were developed, was a constant influence for the South-Eastern part of Europe.

As mentioned earlier, the discoveries of firing pottery Some Thoughts Concerning the Pottery Pyrotechnology installations are quite rare in the archaeological researches, therefore, the missing links cannot be considered as final arguments for exclusion of any oriental influences, through a Balkan network.

Even more so, when we speak about the Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures on Romanian territory, we have to take into account that there is no linear evolution of those installations; different types, some simpler, some more complex, were being used concurrently by the communities belonging to the same culture Cucuteni culture is the most convincing — they used pits for firing the pottery, simple kilns, with one or with two vertical chambers or even in the same settlement bayonne dating Cârcea it was discovered a pit bayonne dating firing pottery, but also buried kilns with two chambers.

The impossible task of establishing an evolution chain or a certain succession of technological information is the direct result of the scarcity and inequality in discovering these installations.

Two complexes were discovered at Dumeşti, one with three, the other one with four kilns.

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However, this is not an argument to contradict the idea of a special space, destined for pottery craft. The firing installations archaeologically researched presents a clear demarcation based on their position towards the settlement and houses. Some are placed in the middle of the settlement, and even within houses.

The fact that these installations were placed at a distance Felix-Adrian Tencariu from the settlement the inhabited areas also poses some interesting problems.

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Firing pottery involved a certain amount of risk, involving handling bayonne dating unpredictable and unstable element — fire. Bayonne dating prevalence, in the pre and proto-historical architecture of wood and other easily inflammable bayonne dating reed or straw only increased the potential risk of fire obvious from the numerous houses and settlement destroyed by fire, either accidental or intentional. This symbolical trait, which is very common in different ethnographical situations, implies the isolation of the firing process in order to avoid potential negative influences that the other members of the community could, intentionally or not, exert on the delicate process.

We cannot reconstruct in detail those types of behaviour, but nonetheless they must have been practiced, being only one facet of the spiritual and symbolical implications that pottery craft had.

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The absence of discoveries of installations in most of the researched pre and proto-historical sites, besides bayonne dating an inconvenient for such a study, represents, in itself a reason for meditation and proposal of new hypothesis. The traditional archaeological approach links the existence of abundant quantities of pottery, with fine, uniform burning, to the existence of sophisticated installations.

Maybe we have to search for these installations in other forms especially when we consider the open firing or in other places — the periphery and the adjacent areas of the settlements. The future of the studies concerning the technology of firing pottery largely depends on using inter- and multi-disciplinary methods in archaeological research. The non-intrusive research, geo- physical and geo-magnetic studies, applied to narrow strips of at Some Thoughts Concerning the Pottery Pyrotechnology least meters around the settlements should help in locating an important number of installations for firing the pottery.

As useful would be the physical and chemical detailed analysis on different categories of ceramic fragments. Thermo analysis, diphractrometry of X bayonne dating, ablution microscopy, Raman diphractrometry, etc. These data, complemented by experiments made in the laboratory or on the field and with installations attested both archaeologically and ethnographically would substantially enrich the knowledge on the art and craft of prehistoric pottery.

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Meşteşugul olăritului, Iaşi. DINU M. Alba Punct: Lumea Nouă, str. Bayonne f. Ethnoarchaeological studies of material culture, Cambridge.

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Grammenos ed. The final report, I, The excavations: stratigraphy, structures and graves, Trieste.

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Zagrebu, 24, 1, Part 1. The Neolithic settlement, London. NICA M. The first farming communities in Europe, Cambridge.

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Gheorghe Reg. Videjko coord. Schematic representations of open firings without type A1 and with isolation type A2. Buried kiln with lateral fueling tunnel and access hole, discovered at Cârcea, Olt County type D2 ; 2. Kiln with two chambers placed vertically, separated by a perforated grid made from clay, discovered at Glăvăneştii Vechi, Iaşi County type E. Evolutional sketch of pottery firing installations. Map of pottery firing installations.

Evolutional sketch of pottery firing installations Fig. Evolutional sketch of pottery firing installations Felix-Adrian Bayonne dating Fig. Related Papers.