Re- os dating arsenopyrite. studia universitatis babeÅ-bolyai ambientum i/
Comparison of data obtained in and respectively in regarding Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn contents. A slight improvement on air quality was noticed over the five year period as a result of the installation of a new, much higher smelter chimney.
In re- os dating arsenopyrite same time, a good correlation between the elemental concentration in the lichens thalli and the distance from the polluting source is evident. By comparing the concentration in the heavy metals Pb, Cu, Zn in the thalli of the Cladonia fimbriata with that recorded in soil samples from the same stationaries, one can notice that the highest levels re- os dating arsenopyrite reached for lead, which accumulated about 3.
A reverse case was recorded for zinc, where accumulation was two times higher in soil than in lichens, while for copper the accumulation was comparable in the two types of samples Table 3. Air pollution from the smelter also has a major impact on the mixed deciduous woodland of the area which is dominated by beech Fagus sylvaticahornbeam Carpinus betulus and oak Quercus petraea .
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Forest soils are highly acidic down to pH 2 . On the valley sides, down stream from the smelter, the tree and herbaceous plant cover is sparse and evidences severe damage from sulphur dioxide and acid rain. Most of the trees show transformations such as extensive necrosis, dying off of the upper canopy branches, blackening of their trunks, and by mid July, yellowing of leaves. The lack of vegetation on many of the steeper slopes has led to severe soil erosion.
On more gentle slopes, leaf litter on the forest floor is extremely deep up to 60 cm due to the quantitative decrease of microfaunal organisms such as nematodes, which usually cause its decomposition .
In the area of the observed positive anomaly, values of residual are also positive, which implies that the total value of Bouguer anomaly in this area comes from joint effect of regional structure and several smaller, local structures. To approach a solution for this anomaly, it was decided to develop a geophysical model, and thus, quantify dimensions and gravity and geomagnetic characteristics of the body that causes this anomaly. Based on geophysical modelling and detail consideration of the geological structures, it was suggested that the cause of the positive Bouguer anomaly is ophiolitic melange from Jurassic. In consideration of nature of the melange, it is assumed that this melange has zones with the pronounced change in magnetic characteristics, which explains the weak negative magnetic anomalies caused by high density rocks. Conclusion Geophysical and geological characteristics of the investigated area are determined by designing, analysing and interpreting of Bouguer anomalies re- os dating arsenopyrite vertical component of Earths magnetic field maps, as well as by analysing and interpreting of satellite imagery.
The diminishing of invertebrate fauna has led to a marked decrease in the number of organisms at upper levels in the food chain including birds . Fungi are amongst the most successful organisms living on the forest floor, including the edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera. However, these have been shown by Pop and Nicoară  to contain thirteen times the Cd and four times the Pb levels allowed by World Health Organization health security standards, with young fruit bodies containing the highest levels.
The extraordinary capacity of fungi to accumulate metals is well known and therefore, as a precautionary measure, those growing in the Zlatna area should no longer be consumed. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the use of lichens in monitoring the effectiveness of environmental initiatives to reduce polluting emissions.
The heavy metal accumulation was species dependent and correlated with the distance from the polluting source, wind direction, meteorological conditions and microhabitat.
The most aggressive element was Pb, emitted not only from the smelter, but possibly also by the vehicles in the traffic. Worldwide, the 20th century has become synonymous with the sight of smoking chimneys, slag heaps, rubbish tips, illegal dumps and 'contaminated land'. Low cost solutions to the problems of metal contamination are therefore urgently required.
Natural remediation systems are likely to provide the most cost effective long-term solutions. The survival of organisms in the presence of toxic metals in contaminated sites such as Zlatna depends on intrinsic biochemical, physiological and genetic features. Whilst it is certainly true that Zlatna has suffered intense environmental degradation, the area is also a natural laboratory for studying fundamental processes of metal mobilisation and bioaccumulation.
Our studies are designed to both identify risks to human health and to work towards better natural systems for cleaning-up such metal contaminated environments. Bartók K. Veget43,pp.
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Petrescu, Presa Univ. Clujană, pp. Crişan F. Cristea, V. Accent, Cluj Napoca. Presa Universitară Clujeană, pp.
Drăgulescu C. Lucian Blaga, Sibiu. Gurzău E. Hawskworth D. Keul M. Lovász M. Munteanu D. Pop V. Pop A. Babeş-Bolyai, Biol.
Popovici I. Cerc, Biol, ser. Preda M. Bot, pp. Richardson D. Rose F. Rusu A-M. Skye E. Suciu I. Om-biosfera, Lucrări şi sinteze ştiinŃifice, pp. Tanghe M. Vestergaard N. Williamson B. Babeş-Bolyai, Geol. Zahan Z. Re- os dating arsenopyrite, Lucrări şi sinteze re- os dating arsenopyrite, pp.
Ca şi în alte Ńări europene, nici în România, înainte denu au existat lucrări care să se ocupe exclusiv cu studiul lichenilor. Ca şi componenŃi ai covorului vegetal, lichenii au fost doar amintiŃi alături de muşchi, pteridofite şi cormofite.
Astfel amintim studiile lui: HeuflerSchurCserniSimonkaiBarthFuss şi Hazslinszky, care înpublică prima carte care conŃinea toate datele referitoare la lichenii din Transilvania la momentul respectiv. Cel mai cunoscut şi mai prolific lichenolog re- os dating arsenopyrite a fost Cretzoiu, care într-o perioadă relativ scurtăa publicat 35 de lucrări de lichenologie, trei fiind fundamentale, respectiv Flora lichenilor folioşi şi fruticuloşi epidendrii şi epixili din România şi Conspectul lichenilor Pyrenocarpi şi Gymnocarpi După al doilea război mondial a crescut numărul lichenologilor în cele trei mari centre universitare ale Ńării, Bucureşti Moruzi, Petria, Mantu, TomaCluj Codoreanu, CiurcheaIaşi Burlacu- Rotărescu, Savastudiile lor având drept obiective flora şi vegetaŃia lichenologică din cele trei provincii re- os dating arsenopyrite.
În ultimele decenii au fost continuate studiile lichenologice la Iaşi de către Coroi şi Marcoci, la Cluj de Ciurchea, Bartók şi Crişan, studiile tratînd, alături de flora şi vegetaŃia lichenologică şi biomonitorizarea poluării cu ajutorul lichenilor. În gama variată a biomonitorilor, lichenii prezintă un interes deosebit datorită proprietăŃilor fizice, chimice şi biologice pe care le posedă.
Prin monitoring se pot determina variaŃiile nivelului şi efectele poluanŃilor în timp sau spaŃiu.
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Una dintre zonele cele mai poluate din România este Zlatna, unde au fost aplicate mai multe metode utilizând lichenii ca biomonitori ai poluării cu metale grele Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn şi emisii gazoase SO 2, NOxprovenite de la fabrica de procesare a minereurilor neferoase Ampellum S.
Cercetările s-au desfăşurat re- os dating arsenopyrite o distanŃă de 30 km, în amonte şi aval de sursa de poluare, timp de mai mulŃi ani. O altă metodă utilizată a fost cea a transplantărilor, fiind folosiŃi licheni recoltaŃi dintr-o zonă nepoluată Muncel, Valea Arieşului. Analiza probelor, după o perioadă de 5 luni, a evidenŃiat creşterea de la 2 până la 7 ori a cantităŃilor de Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, în funcŃie de carcteristicile speciilor de licheni folosite şi distanŃa faŃă de sursa poluantă.
S-a utilizat şi o a treia metodă, cantitativă, respectiv cartarea pe baza indicelui de poluare atmosferică IAPurmărind acoperirea, frecvenŃa, abundenŃa şi toleranŃa specifică. Cele trei metode se completează reciproc, rezultatele obŃinute susŃinând concluziile. Monitorizarea zonei s-a făcut timp de un deceniu până la suspendarea activităŃii societăŃii de prelucrare a minereurilor.
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În anuldouă specii de licheni corticoli, Parmelia conspersa şi Lecanora subfusca, provenind din arii nepoluate, au fost transplantate în zona Zlatna. Au fost comparate rezultatele expunerii eşantioanelor transplantate pe termen scurt şi lung, experimentul fiind repetat după o perioadă de 5 ani. În a fost analizat şi conŃinutul în metale grele al unor eşantioane de Cladonia fimbriata, specie tericolă nativă în aria de studiu, dar numai în afara zonei puternic poluate.
S-a realizat şi analiza comparativă a conŃinutului de metale re- os dating arsenopyrite în eşantioanele de Cladonia fimbriata şi solul colectat din aceleaşi staŃionare. Rezúltatele obŃinute au arătat că zona Zlatna este puternic poluată, putând fi inclusă printre regiunile cele mai afectate de poluare din lume.
This paper is about an economic investigation in order to analyze the existing situation of Lahanokipoi landscape development and the possibilities that can come out when exploring it, starting by writing down the existing business companies and industries, the value of landscape by using economic ratios and the perspectives that can come out.
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The Lahanokipoi area covers a big part of old industries that are no longer in use and there is very low development, which suggests that there could be a total reconstruction of landscape, either by building a business park or a business center with all kinds of facilities and parks.
The project suggests a new model that is economic stable and introduces not only the economic and business development that can be achieved but also the environmental and architectural structure that can maximize the value of landscape. It is the first time in literature that we have a landscape economic and architectural analysis in this part of the city and so the contribution of this paper is of vital importance.
studia universitatis babeÅ-bolyai ambientum i/1-2
The fact that there is a low construction in the area clearly shows the perspective of future development. The proposed methodology is of interest for architects, civil engineers, environmental analysts, businessmen, public sector representatives, local authorities, economologists and many others. Key words: Landscape development, economic re- os dating arsenopyrite, SWOT analysis, Business plan, Business park,Cconstruction The study of Lahanokipoi area started due to a university project that has been given from the Municipality of Thessaloniki and intends to analyze the objective value of the area in order to create a full-organized bussiness park that will increase the value of landscape and of the whole area .
It is of vital importance because this area has been deserted up to a point and needs to be rebuilt in order to attract the interest of the ctizens. This area has already attracted many scientists such as architects, civil engineers and economologists, who have been occupied with various suggestions for it .
Lahanokipoi area temptare dating contul verwijderen situated in the west entry of Thessaloniki city, is close to the port and at the moment there are a few businesses that function there, re- os dating arsenopyrite of them are new but most of them are old and count many years of function .
It combines all the nessesary conditions for such a thing. The perspectives are many and the authorities have finally understood it . This investigation intends to present all the possibilities that Lahanokipoi area can show and it suggests solutions that can re- os dating arsenopyrite really usefull . The first step is to show the landscape right now, how many companies are there and which of them have a real reason to be there.
How many buildings are deserted and how dangerous it can be to even consider walking there during day time.
How the garbage and the dirt re- os dating arsenopyrite all the atmosphere and make it impossible for someone even to stand there, imagine working there . The second step is to give some details of the existing suggestions, compare the advantages and disadvantages of these suggestions by using SWOT analysis Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and end up to the best suggestion .
Finally, the third step presents a fullfilled suggestion of a business park with all the nesessary facilities, that proves to be the best choice for the area and analyzes the importance that could have for the city . There are many businesses that are founded and function in the wide zone of the area, such as business centers, technical companies, small entreprizes, ship companies, import-export companies, advertisement offices, amusement clubs and many re- os dating arsenopyrite .
Some of them are situated in new, modern buildings, some others, usually the olders, in older buildings . The area is characterized by the coexistance of old and ugly buildings with new and more priviledged ones .
The general idea is to create a business park where a big number of those businesses or all of them could be situated in similar and more ellegant buildings, that would express the style and the image of those companies, according to the services that each lycos dating of them provides .
It would be extremely re- os dating arsenopyrite if we could gather in the same business park all kinds of businesses with different objects each one, and in different kinds of buildings. It could be an architectural revolution for the city and could also attract many visitors, instead of only the citizens themselves .
This could also be very helpful, because it would provide a sort of identity for those businesses re- os dating arsenopyrite people could identify at once the kind of businesses that each building represents .