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I am indebted to Patrick Brindle, my editor at Sage in London, for sug gesting this book and persevering through to its completion with nothing short of unflagging enthusiasm and cheery support. This book would not have happened without him.
Anna Coatman, his editorial assistant, was also there to help guide and direct me, keeping the book on track. On the support side, Harriet Baulcombe has provided patient answers to my early marketing queries, and continued support throughout the pro duction of the book.
Or, if you do, I'll certainly encroach upon them. I'm not a poet, that's why I write poetry. I'm an anti-poet or non-poet.
So too has Rachel Burrows who has been a very able and friendly production editor. The text was dramatically improved by an anonymous, yet very helpful copy-editor. This is as good a place as any to acknowledge the many brilliant, open-minded souls whose inspiration and mentorship allowed me to develop netnography. My the sis supervisor, Steve Arnold, was consistently supportive of my web—based interest and experimentation. Henry Jenkins whose early work in this area was a foun dation for my own inspired and helped me greatly in my thesis work, and his work and advice have profoundly affected the course of my career.
John Sherry has been a constant friend and mentor.
I received a lot of assistance from my colleagues at the Association for Consumer Research, whose comments on early papers published as conference proceedings were incredibly helpful. I have Russ Winer to thank for encour aging me to develop netnography as the topic of an article for the Journal of Marketing Research, probably the most important publication of the method thus far. I have no doubt that, had Russ not visited Kellogg and had that conversation with me, the course of the development of this method would have natalie lue online dating very different.
My colleagues in the field of marketing and consumer research could not have been more supportive or collegial through the years, and I feel very grateful to be working viteza datând taranaki a field with scholars that have so much intelligence, heart and viteză dating cupido. These innovative scholars took risks by picking up and using then-new netnographic techniques in their work.
Netnography has always been an approach intended to be of practical use to coni— panies and marketers in their marketing research.
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From around the world, to the home front. My parents, Anne and Michael, and my sister,Jennifer, have always been interested, loving, and encouraging supporters of my work. Netnography was conceived the same year as my eldest child, and my three awesome children Aaron, Cameron, and Brooke have patiently watched their father work away on netnographic research projects their whole life.
Victimele au 14, 17 şi 20 de ani. Una dintre fete - inclusă într-un program de protecţie a victimelor traficului de carne vie. Continui să insist că nu am să generalizez şi nu am să cred că toţi funcţionarii din Primărie sunt corupţi. Pentru că ştiu că acolo lucrează şi oameni cumsecade şi oameni cu demnitate, cu moralitate, cu respect faţă de ei şi faţă de cetăţeni, oameni pentru care loialitatea nu înseamnă să îşi pună parafa pe o ilegalitate doar pentru a-i face pe plac şefului şi oameni care refuză din principiu să ia mită conectări zilnice nu pentru că ar avea un salariu prea mare pentru natalie lue online dating fi tentaţi cu plicuri doldora de euro.
For months, this book curtailed my participation in family activities, but my children showed noth ing but interest in the book and excitement to see the final product. To my won derful wife, Marianne, my caring sounding board and biggest source of support, go the biggest thanks of all.
Finally, to everyone who innovated, invented, invested in, created on, dreamed about, late or early adopted, jumped aboard, and made happen the Internet, I humbly offer my gratitude; and dedicate this book to all of us, in all our glorious connectedness.
To stay current, our research methods must follow. This book is a guide for this new generation of researchers. In the field of consumer and marketing research, netnographies have become a widely accepted form of research. They have been used to tackle a large variety of topics, from applied questions of online advertising to more general investigations of identity, social relations, natalie lue online dating, and creativity. A netnography showed how videogamers respond to product placements and brand advertising Nelson et al.
Another netnography illus trated the coping strategies used by ,bsides to manage cross-cultural ambivalence Nelson and Otnes Many netnographies on a wide variety of topics have been conducted over the last decade by researchers from around the world. Given the changes in our social worl4 this is of little surprise. Inthere were approximatelysites offering published content to the online world of approximately 45 million global users, who were mainly located in North America and Western Europe.
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Inthere are over 1. Moreover, these users are not passively consuming published con tent as many were in they are actively communicating with one another. They are reaching out to form, express, and deepen natalie lue online dating social alliances and affiliation. The sociology student in Turkey who regularly uses her social networking site and posts on the fan sites of her favourite musicians.
The young man with cancer who regularly turns to his online group for advice and support. The respected industry executive who dons virtual leathers and leads a secret second life in the back alleys of virtual worlds. Natalie lue online dating has been developed to help us understand their world.
Netnography has been developed in the area of marketing natalie lue online dating consumer research, an applied, interdisciplinary field that is open to the rapid development and adoption of new techniques. Marketing and consumer research incorporate insights from a range of fields, such as anthropology sociology and cultural studies, selectively applying their basic theories and methods in a way analogous to the way pharmaceutical researchers might apply basic chemistry.
With some notable exceptions, anthropologists on the whole, it seems, have been rather slow and reluctant to follow social groups online Beaulieu ; Garcia et al.
However, because information natalie lue online dating communications technologies have permeated so many areas of contemporary social life and to such an extent, we have reached the point of no return. Social scientists are increasingly reaching the conclusion that they can no longer adequately under stand many of the most important facets of social and cultural life without incorpo rating the Internet and computer—mediated communications into their studies.
Increasingly, it seems like the answer is no. The two have blended into one world: the world of real life, as people live it.
ANTHOLOGY OF THE PARADOXIST LITERARY MOVEMENT
It is a world that includes the use of technology to communicate, to commune, to socialize, to express, and to understand. Could we truly provide a meaningftil portrayal without referencing and analysing the content of online forums, e—mails, instant messages, and corporate websites? Could we provide an ethnographic understanding of the social world of tweens and teenagers without mentioning and studying mobile natalie lue online dating ownership and conversations, SMS text messaging, e-mails, and social networking sites?
When we come to pqrticular topics such as the world of contemporary music, television, celebrity or motion picture fan communities, game—playing communities, amateur artists or authors, or software creators, our cultural portrayals would be extremely limited without detailed reference to the online data and computer-mediated communications that increasingly make these social collectives possible.
Kozinets (2010) Netnography - Doing Ethnographic Research Online (1)
A decade ago, Lyman and Wakefordp. There is no doubt that new research on the use of Internet and other informa tion and communications technologies or ICT is adding significantly to the literature of cultural studies, sociology, economics, law, information science, busi ness and management fields, communication studies, human geography, nursing and healthcare, and anthropology. These disciplines have generally formed their understandings in isolation from related work by scholars working in other fields and theoretical silos.
The methods that these various fields have used to investigate these topics are still somewhat uncertain and in flux. This book will attempt to systematize these methods, recommending an approach under one umbrella term. This book is therefore intended specifically to reward the reader who is interested in researching online communities and cultures, and other forms natalie lue online dating online social behaviour, This reader could be a professor, an academic researcher, an undergrad uate or graduate student, a marketing researcher or another type of professional researcher or consultant.
The netnographic approach is adapted to help the researcher study not only forums, chat, and newsgroups but also blogs, audiovisual, photo graphic, and podcasting communities, virtual worlds, networked game players, mobile communities, and social networking sites.
The basic principles are described and explained in this book with numerous examples. As with any type of methodological handbook, the more you engage with this text and natalie lue online dating the examples, the greater wili be your learning experience. Doing netnography, you will find, is dramatically easier to begin than doing ethnography.
As we are discussing research topics, focus and form your own questions. As we discuss search engines to locate appropriate online communities, start your search for them.
Collect data as we discuss data collection. Analyse your data as we discuss data analysis. Read through the verbatims and examples and engage with them if you are curious, use your search engine to go deeper. If you engage with the book in this way, you will leave it with a wealth of hands-on knowledge.
The goal of this book is to enable the researcher to approach an ethnographic project focused on any type of online community and culture fully informed about what they will need to do. The more you apply the book and its examples, the more attainable you will find this goal.
After working through a few historical details, some necessary definitions, some potentially useful theory, and some methodological comparison and contrast, the book proceeds into a detailed description of the approach of netnography.
The book also includes a glossary that readers may find helpful. The glossary summarizes terms and concepts used in the book and in the field of online community studies, as well as the occasional unavoidable acronym.
This chapter will now provide some further elab oration upon the need for the separate ethnographic approach termed netnography. The debate benefited natalie lue online dating the insights of a number of commenters, especially those of Jerry Lombardi, an applied anthropologist with considerable marketing research experience. Although Jerry initially questioned the need for yet another neologism, eventually he wrote about the utility of the term netnography in eloquent and historically-grounded terms.
Let us try those on our business clients! So yes, new mappings of reality sometimes call for new names, and sometimes the names take a while dating online nsw settle in. The first and foremost is whether we are talking about something that is actually, significantly, different.
In this particular case, we need to ask of the conduct of cultural research in the contemporary world of the Internet and other ICT: is it really different?
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This book suggests that it is. Chapter 4 explains in greater detail these differences, but the key assertion here is that the online social experiences are significantly different from face-to-face social experiences, and the experience of ethnographi cally studying them is meaningfully different.
As later chapters will also explain, there are at least three differences in ethnographic approach.
First, entering the online culture or community is distinct. It diverges from face— to—face entrée in terms of accessibility, approach, and the span of potential inclu sion. Secondly, gathering cultural data and analysing it has partic ular challenges as well as opportunities that are new.
The amounts of data can be different. The ability to apply particular analytic tools and techniques changes when the data are already in digital form. The way the data need to be treated can be different. Finally, there are few, if any, ethical procedures for in—person fieldwork that translate easily to the online medium. The abstract guidelines of informed consent are open to wide degrees of interpretation. If we can agree that these are significant differences, then we should also agree that natalie lue online dating may be useful to provide ethnography with a different designation.
That name certainly does not have to be netnography. Over this time, different researchers have used different terms to describe what it was they were doing.
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Shelley Correll simply called her study of a bulletin board system an ethnography, perhaps signalling that the method remained unchanged whether you used it to study Trobriand Islanders natalie lue online dating lesbians interacting through an online bulletin board. The implication, perhaps, is that ethnography is already known as a flexible and adaptable approach.
Ethnography is runners dating site, prefixing it with digital, online, network, Internet, or web is entirely optional. In her important and influential book, Christine Hine called her online community study a virtual ethnography, with the virtual intended to signal an effort that is necessarily partial and inauthentic because it only focuses on the online aspect of the social experience, rather than the entire experience.
In recent years, I have seen many new names given to the method of online ethnography, including webnography, digital ethnography, and cyberanthropology. More neologisms can and no doubt will be invented. However, despite the many names that alăturați un site de dating la 21 have given their methods, there are very few, ~f any, spec~flc, procedural guidelines to take a researcher through the steps necessary to conduct an ethnography of an online community or culture and to present their work.
Although certain procedures need to be decided dating băieți mai scurți decât tine a contingent basis, and extreme detail in some matters is beyond its scope, this book is specifically aimed at filling that gap. It is also important to note that qualitative research is blessed with an ever—growing range of techniques all related to one another and thus to natalie lue online dating.
These include but are certainly not limited to such innovations as the extended case method, discourse analysis, structural ethnography, holistic ethnography, auto— ethnography, ethnomethodology reflective phenomenology, and participatory action research see Miles and Huberman ;Tesch When an approach is, arguably, significantly different from existing approaches, it gains a new name and becomes, in effect, a discipline, field, or school in and of itself. In my view, the pragmatic and applied approach to ethnography followed by corporate anthropologists is significantly different from the approach of academic anthro pologists and thus merits its own guidelines and perhaps the coining of its own natalie lue online dating name see Sunderland and Denny We need not coin these names.
But we have already been doing so.
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Natalie lue online dating producing ethnographies of online cultures and communities are rapidly minting their own names for their idiosyncratic methods.